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  A framework is a set of common and prefabricated software building blocks that programmers can use, extend or customize for specific computing solutions. With frameworks developers do not have to start from scratch each time they write an application. Frameworks are built from collection of objects so both the design and code of the framework may be reused.

 



Glossary   
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Abstract Windows Toolkit (AWT)
The java.awt package contains a collection of graphical user interface (GUI) controls, such as checkboxes,labels, radio buttons, and text boxes. The controls provide a subset of functional capabilities common across the platforms.

Applet
A Java program that runs in or displayed as part of a Web page. Applets can present special effects, including animation and sound, and permits user interaction.

Application Program Interface (API)
A set of exposed data structures and functions that an application can use to invoke services on a component.

Array
An ordered arrangement or pattern of data. Typically you refer to individual items in the array by an index value.

Binary large object (BLOB)
A large file, such as an image or sound file, that you upload, download, or store in a database in a special way because of its size.

Cartridge
An application component you can deploy to Oracle Application Server (OAS). A cartridge lifecycle is managed by the application server. It is defined by a cartridge name, the minimum and maximum number of instances of a cartridge, the number of threads, and other related configuration information. On OAS, an application consists of related cartridges.

Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
The industry-standard technique for transferring information between a Web server and any program designed to accept and return data that conforms to the CGI specifications. It can accept command line arguments.

Cookie
A packet of information that gets entered into the memory of your browser and written to disk each time you access the server. It contains the domain, path, lifetime, and other variables. You can use cookies for user authentication, maintaining a shopping cart, site personalization, or tracking access to your site.

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
The Interface Definition Language (IDL) that allows the object code module to communicate together in a networked environment, regardless of the programming language that they were written or the operating system that they are running. An industry standard for allowing code modules called objects to
communicate with one another. With CORBA, objects are managed by the Object Request Broker (ORB).

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)
An industry-standard tool proposed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. to leverage the component model of JavaBeans for server-side development. It hides the complexity of the communication infrastructure. Enterprise JavaBeans are built on the JavaBeans technology for distributing program components to clients in a network.

Event
The link between the behavior that a component reacts to and the code that tells the application how to respond.

Event handler
A method that does a specified process when a particular event occurs. The class that generates the event is referred to as an event source.

HyperText Markup Language (HTML)
A format for encoding hypertext documents that may contain text, graphics, and references to programs and other hypertext documents.

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The underlying format, or protocol, used by the Web to format and transmit messages. It determines the actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. HTTP is the protocol used between OAS and clients.

InfoBus
A data interchange protocol that facilitiates the creation of JavaBean applications and interconnection of JavaBeans. The InfoBus interface has direct procedure calls with no inferring.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
A visual tool that helps you write code more efficiently. It contains debuggers, screen painters, and object browsers. An IDE can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) for underlying command-line programs.

Internet Inter-ORB Protocol (IIOP)
An object-oriented protocol that allows programs written in different languages to communicate over the Internet. In the context of Oracle Application Server (OAS), IIOP is used by JCORBA objects.

Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI)
A proprietory API that permits you to build Web applications on Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). ISAPI uses Microsoft Windows dynamic link libraries (DLL).

Java
A programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. for use in the distributed environment of the Internet. This language is fully object-oriented, extremely portable, and optimized for creating distributed applications on the Internet or other computer networks. Oracle Application Server can execute Java applications using the Java cartridge.

Java Archive (JAR) file
A cross-platform file format that uses Java to group multiple class files, graphical images, and sound files. A JAR file is downloaded in a single HTTP transaction. Similar to a ZIP file format, it is compressed to save download time. You specify a JAR file as follows:

JavaBeans
A portable platform-independent component model written in Java and follows the JavaBean spcification. It enables you to write reusable components.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
An application program interface (API) for connecting Java programs to the data in popular databases. It focuses on executing raw SQL statements and retrieving their results.

Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI)
A standard extension to the Java platform. It provides Java technology-enabled applications with a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services in the enterprise.

JavaServer Page (JSP)
A technology for controlling the content or appearance of Web pages through the use of servlets. Java Server Pages call a Java program that is executed by the Web server.

Java virtual machine (JVM)
The mechanism Java uses to obtain high portability. It is the interface between compiled Java binary code and the microprocessor performing the action. Java bytecode is executable by any Java Virtual Machine running on any actual machine.

Metadata
A definition or description of data. It is the descriptive information you assign through wizards at design time about features and settings of an application.

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
A message format used on the Internet to describe the contents of a message. MIME is used by HTTP servers to describe the type of non-textual data, such as graphics, audio, or fax being delivered. It uses mimencode to encode binary data into base 64 using a subset of ASCII.

Multithreading
The process used that makes it appear as though your computer is processing several program instructions, or tasks, simultaneously. The program creates a thread to permit the program to reenter at the correct place once a task is completed. You can control these items from a task list.

Multitier
A row or layer in a series of similarly arranged objects. You can distribute pieces of a program amongs several tiers located in different computers within the same network.

Netscape Server Application Programming Interface (NSAPI)
A proprietary API that permits you to build Web applications on Netscape servers. You can create loadable binary modules to add or replace elements to extend the functionality of the Netscape servers.

Object Request Broker (ORB)
A program that exchanges interface information between components as they are running. It is an object management technology that complies with the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) standard.

PL/SQL
Oracle's proprietary extension to the SQL language. PL/SQL adds procedural and other constructs to SQL that make it suitable for writing applications.

Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
A way to write object-oriented programs using the Java programming language and development environment. It passes a request to different computers interacting in a distributed network.

Servlet
A small program that runs inside a Web server. It is a platform-independent, server-side Java component used to extend Web server functionality. You can customize content, function, and appearance of your Web pages.

Structured Query Language (SQL)
A standard interactive and programming language for getting information from and updating a database. The internationally accepted standard for relational systems covers queries, data definition, manipulation, security, and some aspects of referential integrity. Queries take the form of a command language that lets you perform such tasks as select, insert, and update.

SQLJ
A set of programming extensions that allows you to embed statements that provide SQL database requests into the Java program. SQLJ is similar to existing extensions for SQL.

Stored procedures
A set of PL/SQL instructions that are stored in a database.

Stub
A small program routine that substitutes for a larger program.

Swing
The code name for a collection of graphical user interface (GUI) components that runs uniformly on any native platform that supports the Java virtual machine (JVM).

Three-tier application
An application program that is organized into three major parts, or tiers. These tiers, the presentation logic, the business logic, and the database, are distributed to different places in a network.

Web-to-Go
A light weight Web server that is part of the Oracle 8i Lite database. Web-to-Go facilitates the development, deployment, and management of mobile Web applications. It is the solution for seamlessly mobilizing a Web application. No installation on the client.


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